Sin in the Human Race
Questions 13 to 19
Q. 13. Did our first parents continue in the state in which they were created?
A. Our first parents, being left to the freedom of their own will, fell from the state in which they were created by sinning against God.[a]
[a]. Gen 3:6-8; Gen 3:13; 2 Cor 11:3
Q. 14. What is sin?
A. Sin is any failure to measure up to what God requires, or any disobedience to his commands.[a]
[a]. Lev 5:17; Jas 4:17; 1 John 3:4
Q. 15. What was the sin by which our first parents fell from the state in which they were created?
A. The sin by which our first parents fell from the state in which they were created, was their eating the fruit[a] that God had forbidden.
[a]. Gen 3:6
Q. 16. Did all mankind fall in Adam’s first disobedience?
A. Since the covenant of life was made with Adam[a] for his descendants as well as for himself, all mankind descending from him in the ordinary manner, sinned in him, and fell with him in his first transgression.[b]
[a]. Gen 2:16-17; Jas 2:10
[b]. Rom 5:12-21; 1 Cor 15:22
Q. 17. Into what state did the fall bring mankind?
A. The fall brought mankind into a state of sin and misery.[a]
[a]. Gen 3:16-19, 23; Rom 3:16; Rom 5:12; Eph 2:1
Q. 18. What is the sinfulness of that state into which man fell?
A. The sinfulness of the state into which man fell includes the guilt of Adam’s first sin,[a] the lack of the righteousness[b] which he had at first, and the corruption every part of his nature,[c] which is commonly called Original Sin; together with all actual sins which flow from it.[d]
[a]. Rom 5:12, 19
[b]. Rom 3:10; Col 3:10; Eph 4:24
[c]. Psa 51:5; John 3:6; Rom 3:18; Rom 8:7-8; Eph 2:3
[d]. Gen 6:5; Psa 53:1-3; Mat 15:19; Rom 3:10-18, 23; Gal 5:19-21; Jas 1:14-15
Q. 19. What misery did the fall bring upon mankind?
A. The fall brought upon mankind loss of communion with God,[a] and his wrath[b] and curse,[c] so that we are justly liable to all miseries in this life,[d] to death[ea] itself, and to punishment in hell for ever.[f]
[a]. Gen 3:8, 24; John 8:34, 42, 44; Eph 2:12; Eph 4:18
[b]. John 3:36; Rom 1:18; Eph 2:3; Eph 5:6
[c]. Gal 3:10; Rev 22:3
[d]. Gen 3:16-19; Job 5:7; Ecc 2:22-23; Rom 8:18-23
[e]. Eze 18:4; Rom 5:12; Rom 6:23
[f]. Mat 25:41, 46; 2 Thes 1:9; Rev 14:9-11
God’s Covenant of Grace
Q. 20. Did God leave all mankind to perish in the state of sin and misery?
A. God, solely out of his love and mercy, from all eternity elected some to everlasting life,[a] and entered into a covenant of grace to deliver them out of the state of sin and misery, and to bring them into a state of salvation by a Redeemer.[b]
[a]. Acts 13:48; Eph 1:4-5; 2 Thes 2:13-14
[b]. Gen 3:15; Gen 17:7; Exo 19:5-6; Jer 31:31-34; Mat 20:28; 1 Cor 11:25; Heb 9:15